(update 26-Aug-2020: the MSVC team has recently added C11 language support to their roadmap, hooray!)

(update 28-Sep-2019: some fixes and error corrections)

When discussing C with C++ programmers I often notice a somewhat outdated view of C, usually a familiarity with a C dialect that lies somewhere between C89 and C99, because that’s essentially the “subset of C that’s supported by C++”.

I can’t blame them though because when I started writing C code again I had a similar outdated view of the language.

Also to be clear, the ‘Modern C’ I’m talking about here is not modern at all, but already two decades old. I’ll focus on the subset of C99 which is supported by clang, gcc and MSVC (clang and gcc both fully support the latest C standards of course, while (AFAIK) Microsoft’s stance unfortunately hasn’t changed much since this post from 2012.

It’s not all bad in Visual Studio land though, the Microsoft C compiler actually supports a pretty solid subset of C99 since around VS2015. I guess there are some guerilla warriors at Microsoft who secretly sneak updates into the C compiler when the C++ people are out in the field on one of their C++ Committee trips.

But lets get started:

Modern C is not a subset of C++

C++ programmers sometimes recommend to compile C code in ‘C++ mode’ to take advantage of the slightly stricter type checking in C++ (more on type safety below), and that’s even recommended in that Microsoft blog post I linked to above:

“We recommend that C developers use the C++ compiler to compile C code”

…I’m sorry to be a bit blunt, but that’s a load of rubbish because C++ still only supports a terribly old-fashioned version of C. The new stuff in C99 which makes C a much friendlier language isn’t supported in C++, at least not in “standard C++”.

GCC and especially Clang both have compiler-specific extensions which allow to use more of C99 in C++ mode, but unfortunately the only compiler where such non-standard C++ extensions would be really useful (MSVC) doesn’t have any.

To iterate on that point, because it’s really important:

C is not a subset of C++

Apart from the fact that C99 code simply doesn’t compile in C++ (and probably never will even in future versions of C++), programming in C requires a different approach of how to work with data, and sometimes how to structure a project (for instance: don’t think in classes, but in modules and systems). Trying to ‘emulate’ missing features from C++ in C usually isn’t such a great idea.

C++ is also not a ‘replacement’ or a ‘successor’ to C, it’s a fork which slowly ‘devolved’ its C subset into a slightly different dialect of C without much hope that the two languages can ever be united again (which IMHO is a damn shame, because being able to mix C with a sane subset of C++ would be really useful for writing libraries).

But aaaaanyway… it’s moot to complain about this from the side lines.

The simple stuff

In the unlikely case that you last had a look at C around 1990, lets get the simple things out of the way first:

  • winged comments (//) are allowed
  • variables can be declared anywhere, not just at the beginning of a scope block
  • the loop variable in a for loop can be declared inside the for() so that the variable doesn’t leak into the outer scope: for (int i = ...)
  • integer types have much clearer names now: uint8_t, uint16_t, int32_t etc… (these are not built-in but defined in the stdint.h header)
  • there’s now a standardized bool with true/false (also not built-in but defined in stdbool.h) (update: I made a small error here, the bool type is indeed a (private) builtin type, usually named something like _Bool, the stdbool.h header just redefines this to the common ‘bool’ name)

By the way, a subtle yet important difference between C and C++ is a function declaration with an empty argument list:

void my_func() {

In C++ this function takes no arguments, but in C this function takes any number of arguments (I can’t think of a situation where that would actually be useful, since there’s no way to access this “variable argument list” inside the function, I guess it’s a leftover ‘syntax pollution’ from old K&R style function declaration syntax).

Instead in C, declare the parameter list explicitely as ‘void’ so that you actually get compiler errors when accidently passing arguments to ‘my_func()’:

void my_func(void) {

Enable all warnings!

C’s type system is in some details a bit more relaxed than C++ which can at times be annoying. This is also the reason why C++ people sometimes recommend to compile C code as C++. The more realistic alternative is to enable the highest warning levels a compiler allows. This generates warnings for all type system related problems (I know of) which C allows but C++ catches as errors.

These are the relevant flags:

  • -Wall and -Wextra on GCC
  • -Weverything on Clang
  • /W4 or /Wall on MSVC

Especially /W4 on MSVC will generate a lot of fairly pointless spam though, so some additional warning hygiene may be required by carefully disabling warnings in selected places. I would advice to not do this globally though (ok, maybe with a few exceptions), but instead only suppress specific warnings in specific places after making sure the warnings are indeed uncritical spam.

Proper warning hygiene is a topic worth of its own blog post though.

Wrap your structs in a typedef

One of the first annoyances a C++ programmer will notice in C is that one needs to write struct all over the place.

In C++ you can simply do:

struct bla_t {
    int a, b, c;

bla_t bla = ...;

…while in C you must explicitly write:

struct bla_t bla = ...;

Wrapping a struct in a typedef fixes that, and that’s why you’ll see this a lot in C code:

typedef struct {
    int a, b, c;
} bla_t;

bla_t bla = ...;

This way of typedef’ing from an ‘adhoc’ anonymous struct has a problem though, you can’t forward-declare the struct:

// forward-declaring bla_t and a function using bla_t:
struct bla_t;
void func(struct bla_t bla);

// actual struct and function, using the typedef:
typedef struct {
    int a, b, c;
} bla_t;

void func(bla_t bla) { // <= warning 'parameter different from declaration'

The workaround is to rewrite the typedef like this:

typedef struct bla_t { int a, b, c; } bla_t;

Now you have a named struct bla_t which is typedef’ed to a type alias bla_t, and the named struct can be properly forward-declared.

So if you see a strange ‘redundant’ typedef like this in C code the reason is that it enables forward declaration.

updates: (1) apparently the Linux coding guidelines discourage typedef’ing a struct, and (2) the POSIX standard reserves the ‘_t’ postfix for its own typenames to prevent collisions with user types – make of that what you will ;)

Use struct wrappers for strong typing

Typedef’s ‘weakness’ is another annoyance, both in C and C++:

typedef - creates an alias that can be used anywhere in place of a (possibly complex) type name.

Typedef only creates a weak type alias not a proper new type (it’s really not much better than a preprocessor define), meaning there’s no warning when assigning to a different type from the same base type:

typedef int meters_t;
typedef int hours_t;

meters_t m = 1;
hours_t h = m;    // this isn't an error, but it really should be

Wrapping the types into a struct makes this code properly typesafe:

typedef struct { int val; } meters_t;
typedef struct { int val; } hours_t;

meters_t m = { 1 };
hours_t h = m;    // compile error!

Depending on how much of a fan of strong typing you are, this approach makes sense both in C and C++.

Initialization in C99

C99’s new initialization features are by far the biggest usability improvement over C89 to a point where it almost feels like a new language, (and to be honest, it makes the many different ways C++ offers for initialization look a bit silly).

The two relevant features are compound literals and designated initialization.

Both together let you do things like this:

typedef struct { float x, y; } vec2;

vec2 v0 = { 1.0f, 2.0f };
vec2 v1 = { .x = 1.0f, .y = 2.0f };
vec2 v2 = { .y = 2.0f };    // missing struct members are set to zero

For globals, only compile-time constants are allowed for initialization (which is a good thing because it completely avoids C++’s undefined initialization order problem for globals).

Inside functions, runtime-variable values can be used for initialization:

float get_x(void) {
    return 1.0f;

void bla(void) {
    vec2 v0 = { .x = get_x(), .y = 2.0f };

Unfortunately the C compiler can’t always infer the type from the left-hand side of an assignment:

    vec2 v0;
    // this doesn't work
    v0 = { 1.0f, 2.0f };
    // instead a type hint is needed:
    v0 = (vec2) { 1.0f, 2.0f };

Here’s a more interesting real-world example from the sokol_gfx.h example code. This initializes a nested ‘option bag’ structure which contains dozens of members, where only a few of the members get non-default values:

sg_pipeline_desc pip_desc = {
    .layout = {
        .buffers[0].stride = 28,
        .attrs = {
            [ATTR_vs_position].format = SG_VERTEXFORMAT_FLOAT3,
            [ATTR_vs_color0].format   = SG_VERTEXFORMAT_FLOAT4
    .shader = shd,
    .index_type = SG_INDEXTYPE_UINT16,
    .depth_stencil = {
        .depth_compare_func = SG_COMPAREFUNC_LESS_EQUAL,
        .depth_write_enabled = true,
    .rasterizer.cull_mode = SG_CULLMODE_BACK,
    .rasterizer.sample_count = SAMPLE_COUNT,
    .label = "cube-pipeline"

The good news is that C++20 is getting basic designated initialization too, the bad news is that it will only be a very limited subset of the C99 feature. For instance this won’t work in C++20:

    .buffers[0].stride = 28,

You can’t use an array index in C++20, and you can’t chain designators like that.

(worth mentioning that at least Clang has a C++ extension which allows much more powerful C99-style designated-initialization already now than what C++20 will offer, such code is not portable to other compilers though)

Don’t be afraid to pass and return structs by value

There’s still a lot of outdated ‘optimization advice’ about passing and returning structs by value in C and C++ around. In C++ this advice is sometimes even justified because copying a non-trivial C++ object may be much more expensive than it looks on the surface because complex custom copying code might be invoked under the hood (passing std::string objects by value is the best/worst example).

The situation in C is a whole lot simpler, copying a struct is always a straight data copy without involving custom code.

Furthermore, the “new” 64-bit calling conventions pack small structs into registers (at least on Intel, don’t know what’s the situation on ARM). So there’s a good chance that passing small-ish structs by value doesn’t ever hit memory.

And on top of that, with optimization enabled, and the compiler being able to inline a function call, even bigger structs are most likely ‘optimized away’ completely. But don’t take my word for granted! When in doubt, always check godbolt.org and/or the code generated by your compiler.

Here’s an example how “old-fashioned C code” might look like to add two “2D vectors”:

struct float2 { float x, y; };

void addf2(const struct float2* v0, const struct float2* v1, struct float2* out) {
    out->x = v0->x + v1->x;
    out->y = v0->y + v1->y;

    struct float2 v0, v1, v2;
    v0.x = 1.0f; v0.y = 2.0f;
    v1.x = 3.0f; v1.y = 4.0f;
    addf2(&v0, &v1, &v2);

Here’s the ‘Modern C’ version:

typedef struct { float x, y; } float2;

float2 addf2(float2 v0, float2 v1) {
    return (float2) { v0.x + v1.x, v0.y + v1.y };

    float2 v0 = { 1.0f, 2.0f };
    float2 v1 = { 3.0f, 4.0f };
    float2 v3 = addf2(v0, v1);

You can also move the initialization of the two inputs right into the function call:

    float2 v3 = addf2((float2){ 1.0f, 2.0f }, (float2){ 3.0f, 4.0f });

Named optional arguments

C99’s designated initialization enables an interesting ‘Easter Egg’ feature: let’s say you have a C function which requires many input parameters, most of them optional (in which case default values should be used). In C++ you can have optional args with default values, but they must appear in order and at the end of the argument list.

C99’s designated initialization to the rescue. Put the argument list into a ‘parameter struct’, like in this function from sokol_gfx.h:

sg_image sg_make_image(const sg_image_desc* desc);

This takes a pointer to a big “option bag” struct with creation parameters for an image object, where the parameters have “useful defaults”. In C99 you can call the function while setting up the option-bag struct right in the function call:

sg_image img = sg_make_image(&(sg_image_desc){
    .width = 256,
    .height = 256

(note how it’s possible in C99 to take the address of a temporary inside a function call, this is an example of code that’s completely valid in C, but not in C++)

This function call creates an image of size 256x256 with all other parameters using their default values.

In case I also need to use a non-default pixel format I simply add that to the option-bag parameter list, the parameter order doesn’t matter:

sg_image img = sg_make_image(&(sg_image_desc){
    .width = 256,
    .height = 256,
    .pixel_format = SG_PIXELFORMAT_R8

Etc etc… Of course it’s possible to do something similar in C++ with an sg::image_desc class and the builder pattern, but this requires to write a lot of rather boring boilerplate code to implement the builder pattern on the class author’s side.

Be (somewhat) afraid of pointers

IMHO, pointers in C should be treated like the unsafe keyword in Rust. The presence of pointers in C code and in structs always requires special attention and mental effort to read and understand all the code ‘tainted’ by those pointers.

To be a bit more specific owning pointers are the main problem, meaning pointers which own the thing they point to, and where the pointer might outlive the pointee, or the pointee might move to a different memory location (familiar to C++ programmers as everybody’s favourite memory corruption feature AKA ‘iterator invalidation’).

Pointers which are ‘immutable borrow references’ are usually ok as function arguments though, the important point is that the pointed to object is only ‘borrowed’ for the duration of the function call, and no ownership transfer takes place.

But as you can see, C pointers always come with their own set of caveats and a lot of ‘explanation overhead’ for each use of a pointer. Thus it’s best to avoid them alltogether (or at least “as much as possible”).

Now I can literally hear the audience burst into laughter crying “C without pointers? How’s that gonna work, smart-ass?!?”.

I’ll get straight to that in the next section:

What to do about missing RAII

I’m using the term RAII (which IMHO is one of the worst names in computing) for C++’s ability to automatically call user-defined destruction code at the end of a scope block, and when copying or moving objects (these are the actually important parts of RAII, not the ‘fused’ allocation and initialization of an object).

My opinion (and of course you don’t have to agree with it) on RAII is that it is mostly useful in the same situations where garbage collection is useful: automatic memory management - more specifically keeping track of myriads of tiny memory allocations and deciding when it’s safe to free them.

Yeah I know I knooow… theoretically RAII is about general resource management, not just about memory. But at least in my experience, it’s always about memory management.

Garbage collection or RAII are certainly great features to have - assuming having tons of small memory allocations to keep track of is nothing to worry about.

And that’s the core of the problem right there. If you don’t want to worry about memory management it will ineviatably come back to haunt you when it’s too late to do anything about it. It doesn’t matter whether many small allocations are managed through a GC or through RAII. The problem is the many small allocations.

If you don’t have such small (and often hidden) memory allocations happening decentralized all over the code in the first place, both GC and RAII lose most of their appeal. Controversial claim, I know, and I realize that it’s very easy to make such a claim without having a million-line C code base maintained by a huge team under the belt to back it up (but at least I have the counter-experience of a million-line C++ OOP code base which does its memory management through smart pointers - which admittedly is very robust, but also slow and impossible to meaningfully profile and optimize).

…aaanyhoo… back to “what to do about the missing RAII”:

The smart-ass advice is of course “don’t do many small memory allocations”.

A more reasonable advice is to work with what C offers, instead of trying to work around it.

The ‘C way’ is to have ‘dumb data’ instead of ‘smart objects’. A struct is just some plain data blob without a behaviour of its own. When the data is copied, it’s always a simple copy. When the data is destroyed, it’s always a no-op.

Don’t build data structures with ‘stuff dangling off’ which needs to be tracked (for instance pointers to a unique memory allocation).

Don’t build data structures which require special ‘deep copy’ operations.

Don’t waste a unique allocation for a single data item and don’t allocate in random places in your code, instead keep many data items of the same type stored in few arrays managed by central ‘systems’ and reference them through tagged index handles.

Consider keeping small transient data structures on the stack and pass them around by value instead of wasting a heap allocation on them.

Embrace DOD (Data Oriented Design), this is built around the basic idea that data items never come alone and should be stored and processed in simple linear arrays to improve CPU cache hit rate. The same core idea is also useful for drastically reducing the number and frequency of memory allocations, and getting rid of ‘owning pointers’.

And you don’t need a fancy high-level language for all of that.

So… should I switch to C now or what?

Erm no, that’s not the intention behind this blog post, at most doing my tiny part to update the somewhat prevalent view (in some circles at least) of C as an outdated language which must be replaced at all cost (usually with languages that don’t quite understand the essence of why people actually choose C).

I don’t want to fuel the language wars, and higher level general languages like Rust, C# or C++ of course have their place in the world, but so have small languages like C.

Because sometimes it simply doesn’t make sense to bring an aircraft carrier to a knife fight ;)